New MixLife Show! #vaping 



New MixLife Show! #vaping

 


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New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer


New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer

Luke Skywalker wasn’t just a farmer. In the original 1977 Star Wars film, the lead character was desperate to leave his home planet of Tatooine, where his family farmed moisture from the atmosphere using devices called “vaporators.” In the planet’s hot and dry desert landscape, moisture farming was an important activity for survival.

But could this principle of drawing moisture from the air to provide drinking water work in the real world? Researchers and I are working on technology to turn it from science fiction into reality. And now a new study has demonstrated how one device could work even in dry desert conditions using only the power of the sun.

If you sit in your garden on a hot, humid summer day with an iced glass of water, you will notice water droplets forming on the outside of the glass. The Star Wars vaporators on Tatooine may have worked using a similar principle. Cooling down warm air produces condensation, which can then be collected. Rain is actually a natural phenomenon of the same principle. When warm, humid air cools, it loses its capacity to maintain its water content and precipitation occurs in the form of raindrops.

Air naturally carries water vapor, and the warmer the air and the higher the relative humidity, the more water vapor it can carry. So technology that generates water from air is most suited to warm and humid climates. At 100% humidity, the air at 40℃ contains about 51 milliliters of water per cubic meter of air. For the same humidity at 10℃, the air contains only 9.3 milliliters.

If we cool that air from 40℃ to 10℃, we should be able to extract that water difference, which is 41.7 milliliters for each cubic meter of air. Under these conditions with current technology, we could produce 147 liters of water per hour using about the same energy as 18 domestic electric kettles.

At lower humidity, such as in a desert, there is less water in the air and so the system will be less efficient. You have to cool more air to extract the same quantity of water and that requires more energy. This can make the current technology too expensive for countries where water shortages are most severe. What you need is a more efficient way of capturing water vapor.

The simplest way of drawing water from air is with passive technology that provides a cool surface for fog or water vapor to condense onto. The selection of material and surface quality are critical for maximizing water collection. For example, farmers in Chile use a steel mesh to catch water from fog. Researchers have shown this can be made more efficient by adding a special coating that attracts water molecules.

Active cooling

Then there are active cooling technologies such as a refrigeration cycle similar to the one we use in air conditioning systems and refrigerators. You can also use solid-state thermoelectric cooling, which involves something called the Peltier effect.

In 1834, the French physicist Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier discovered an interesting phenomenon. If you run a current through a circuit made from copper and bismuth metal wires, a temperature rise occurs at the point where the current passes from copper to bismuth and a temperature drop occurs where the current passes from bismuth to copper. This means by consuming electrical energy, we can provide a cooling effect without any fluids or moving parts.

Metal-organic framework technology. MIT photo from laboratory of Evelyn Wang.
But scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have now demonstrated another technology that could be even more efficient, using something called metal-organic frameworks powered by natural sunlight. The technology, described in the journal Science, uses a network of metal and organic molecules that can easily trap water vapor, which is then released using heat captured from the sun.

It has been reported that one kilogram of this material can harvest 2.8 liters of water a day at relative humidity levels as low as 20% without any other external power source. This makes it a particularly promising technology for harvesting water in arid or desert regions of the world.

Another alternative is to use simpler cooling technology but reduce the cost of it. My team and I have been developing a water-from-air system using old fridges and freezers, in addition to other recycled components such as an old computer fan and a mobile phone charger. We hope to create a low-cost system for developing countries that also reduces waste in developed countries, particularly when solar panels are used to power the system.

Future work in this area would include using special surface coatings to provide a non-stick surface such as the surface of waterlilies for water droplets to be easily collected to create a more efficient system, in addition to ongoing metal-organic frameworks research. Another challenge is air pollution. In some parts of the world, special filtering and treatment might be needed to make the captured water safe to drink.

But this technology is moving fast. Who knows, in the future, we might not have to travel to Tatooine to see a Star Wars vaporator in action.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Banner Image Credit: Amin Al Habaibeh

New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer

 


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CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products


CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a new study that has confirmed that more smokers are trying to quit by taking up vaping, rather than using nicotine replacement therapy products.

As many are aware, the federal government, big tobacco (not all), big pharma, the media, and a slew of anti-vaping groups have talked down upon vaping, its products, and the culture that thrives around it to de-emphasize the benefits and legitimacy that vaping and vapor products offer to the world. The vaping industry has suffered a long and painful uphill battle since its infancy due to greed and the imposing threat of change. Fortunately, as the industry has progressed and grown legs to stand on, new studies and reports continue to emerge proving all those against vaping wrong.

In fact, just a couple of short years ago health professionals, anti-vaping groups, and the media painted a foul picture of vaping, touting that vapor products are no greater than or are even worse than smoking traditional cigarettes. Claims like these were laid to rest when the Royal College of Physicians; one of the world’s most renowned medical bodies that dates back to the reign of King Henry VIII, released a 200-page report just one year ago claiming that e-cigs and vaping devices are probably the best resource in generations to get people to move away from combustible tobacco. In addition, the Royal College’s claim went on to share that e-cigs and vaping devices are up to 95% less harmful than traditional cigarettes.

The tides are continuing to shift in the favor of vaping and vapor products, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a 26-month study of 15,943 adult cigarette smokers, confirming that more smokers are trying to quit by vaping than nicotine replacement therapy products. The study was published in the journal of Preventing Chronic Disease.

The goal of the study was to determine what may be the most effective ways of quitting smoking from 10 different, but common methods. Below are the findings within the study:

74.7% of survey participants used multiple methods during their most recent quit attempt.

65.3% gave up cigarettes and smoking entirely as their method.

62.0% reduced the number of cigarettes smoked as their quit attempt method.

35.3% substituted tobacco cigarettes with e-cigs.

25.4% used nicotine patches, gum, or other cessation aids approved by the FDA.

24.7% switched from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigs completely.

15.2% received help from a doctor or health professional as their quitting method.

12.2% used smoking-cessation medications approved by the FDA.

7.1% received help from a website as their quitting method.

5.4% used a quit-line as their method.

As a result of the study released by the CDC, some analysts are questioning whether the study will help resolve, or add to, the lack of clarity on whether vapor products should be used or recommended as a quit device. However, Brad Rodu, a professor of medicine at the University of Louisville and an active anti-smoking advocate said “The CDC has finally acknowledged the popularity of vaping” and “this study documents that vaping is American smokers’ most popular quit-smoking aid, despite a broad misinformation campaign labeling e-cigarettes as neither safe nor effective.”

Truth be told, over the year’s we’ve stacked up a consistent list of vaping studies, surveys, and various reports that prove the benefits and legitimacy that vaping and vapor products provide for smokers all around the world. Unfortunately, even though vapers like ourselves see the findings as the breakthrough the industry, its market, and consumers have been waiting for, there will always be those out there against it, again, due to greed and the imposing threat of change.

It’s a tough pill to swallow — that’s why you don’t, and you continue to fight, spread awareness and its truth. I urge you to share the articles on this site showing the benefits of vaping to spread awareness of them and present truth to your family, friends, and co-workers.

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CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products

 


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