New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer

New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer

Luke Skywalker wasn’t just a farmer. In the original 1977 Star Wars film, the lead character was desperate to leave his home planet of Tatooine, where his family farmed moisture from the atmosphere using devices called “vaporators.” In the planet’s hot and dry desert landscape, moisture farming was an important activity for survival.

But could this principle of drawing moisture from the air to provide drinking water work in the real world? Researchers and I are working on technology to turn it from science fiction into reality. And now a new study has demonstrated how one device could work even in dry desert conditions using only the power of the sun.

If you sit in your garden on a hot, humid summer day with an iced glass of water, you will notice water droplets forming on the outside of the glass. The Star Wars vaporators on Tatooine may have worked using a similar principle. Cooling down warm air produces condensation, which can then be collected. Rain is actually a natural phenomenon of the same principle. When warm, humid air cools, it loses its capacity to maintain its water content and precipitation occurs in the form of raindrops.

Air naturally carries water vapor, and the warmer the air and the higher the relative humidity, the more water vapor it can carry. So technology that generates water from air is most suited to warm and humid climates. At 100% humidity, the air at 40℃ contains about 51 milliliters of water per cubic meter of air. For the same humidity at 10℃, the air contains only 9.3 milliliters.

If we cool that air from 40℃ to 10℃, we should be able to extract that water difference, which is 41.7 milliliters for each cubic meter of air. Under these conditions with current technology, we could produce 147 liters of water per hour using about the same energy as 18 domestic electric kettles.

At lower humidity, such as in a desert, there is less water in the air and so the system will be less efficient. You have to cool more air to extract the same quantity of water and that requires more energy. This can make the current technology too expensive for countries where water shortages are most severe. What you need is a more efficient way of capturing water vapor.

The simplest way of drawing water from air is with passive technology that provides a cool surface for fog or water vapor to condense onto. The selection of material and surface quality are critical for maximizing water collection. For example, farmers in Chile use a steel mesh to catch water from fog. Researchers have shown this can be made more efficient by adding a special coating that attracts water molecules.

Active cooling

Then there are active cooling technologies such as a refrigeration cycle similar to the one we use in air conditioning systems and refrigerators. You can also use solid-state thermoelectric cooling, which involves something called the Peltier effect.

In 1834, the French physicist Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier discovered an interesting phenomenon. If you run a current through a circuit made from copper and bismuth metal wires, a temperature rise occurs at the point where the current passes from copper to bismuth and a temperature drop occurs where the current passes from bismuth to copper. This means by consuming electrical energy, we can provide a cooling effect without any fluids or moving parts.

Metal-organic framework technology. MIT photo from laboratory of Evelyn Wang.
But scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have now demonstrated another technology that could be even more efficient, using something called metal-organic frameworks powered by natural sunlight. The technology, described in the journal Science, uses a network of metal and organic molecules that can easily trap water vapor, which is then released using heat captured from the sun.

It has been reported that one kilogram of this material can harvest 2.8 liters of water a day at relative humidity levels as low as 20% without any other external power source. This makes it a particularly promising technology for harvesting water in arid or desert regions of the world.

Another alternative is to use simpler cooling technology but reduce the cost of it. My team and I have been developing a water-from-air system using old fridges and freezers, in addition to other recycled components such as an old computer fan and a mobile phone charger. We hope to create a low-cost system for developing countries that also reduces waste in developed countries, particularly when solar panels are used to power the system.

Future work in this area would include using special surface coatings to provide a non-stick surface such as the surface of waterlilies for water droplets to be easily collected to create a more efficient system, in addition to ongoing metal-organic frameworks research. Another challenge is air pollution. In some parts of the world, special filtering and treatment might be needed to make the captured water safe to drink.

But this technology is moving fast. Who knows, in the future, we might not have to travel to Tatooine to see a Star Wars vaporator in action.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Banner Image Credit: Amin Al Habaibeh

New Technology Brings Star Wars-Style Desert Moisture Farming a Step Closer



CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products

CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a new study that has confirmed that more smokers are trying to quit by taking up vaping, rather than using nicotine replacement therapy products.

As many are aware, the federal government, big tobacco (not all), big pharma, the media, and a slew of anti-vaping groups have talked down upon vaping, its products, and the culture that thrives around it to de-emphasize the benefits and legitimacy that vaping and vapor products offer to the world. The vaping industry has suffered a long and painful uphill battle since its infancy due to greed and the imposing threat of change. Fortunately, as the industry has progressed and grown legs to stand on, new studies and reports continue to emerge proving all those against vaping wrong.

In fact, just a couple of short years ago health professionals, anti-vaping groups, and the media painted a foul picture of vaping, touting that vapor products are no greater than or are even worse than smoking traditional cigarettes. Claims like these were laid to rest when the Royal College of Physicians; one of the world’s most renowned medical bodies that dates back to the reign of King Henry VIII, released a 200-page report just one year ago claiming that e-cigs and vaping devices are probably the best resource in generations to get people to move away from combustible tobacco. In addition, the Royal College’s claim went on to share that e-cigs and vaping devices are up to 95% less harmful than traditional cigarettes.

The tides are continuing to shift in the favor of vaping and vapor products, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a 26-month study of 15,943 adult cigarette smokers, confirming that more smokers are trying to quit by vaping than nicotine replacement therapy products. The study was published in the journal of Preventing Chronic Disease.

The goal of the study was to determine what may be the most effective ways of quitting smoking from 10 different, but common methods. Below are the findings within the study:

74.7% of survey participants used multiple methods during their most recent quit attempt.

65.3% gave up cigarettes and smoking entirely as their method.

62.0% reduced the number of cigarettes smoked as their quit attempt method.

35.3% substituted tobacco cigarettes with e-cigs.

25.4% used nicotine patches, gum, or other cessation aids approved by the FDA.

24.7% switched from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigs completely.

15.2% received help from a doctor or health professional as their quitting method.

12.2% used smoking-cessation medications approved by the FDA.

7.1% received help from a website as their quitting method.

5.4% used a quit-line as their method.

As a result of the study released by the CDC, some analysts are questioning whether the study will help resolve, or add to, the lack of clarity on whether vapor products should be used or recommended as a quit device. However, Brad Rodu, a professor of medicine at the University of Louisville and an active anti-smoking advocate said “The CDC has finally acknowledged the popularity of vaping” and “this study documents that vaping is American smokers’ most popular quit-smoking aid, despite a broad misinformation campaign labeling e-cigarettes as neither safe nor effective.”

Truth be told, over the year’s we’ve stacked up a consistent list of vaping studies, surveys, and various reports that prove the benefits and legitimacy that vaping and vapor products provide for smokers all around the world. Unfortunately, even though vapers like ourselves see the findings as the breakthrough the industry, its market, and consumers have been waiting for, there will always be those out there against it, again, due to greed and the imposing threat of change.

It’s a tough pill to swallow — that’s why you don’t, and you continue to fight, spread awareness and its truth. I urge you to share the articles on this site showing the benefits of vaping to spread awareness of them and present truth to your family, friends, and co-workers.


CDC Study Confirms More Smokers Try To Quit By Vaping Than NRT Products



E-Juice Makers Mixer Profiles: Kopel: Ckemist: Jennifer Jarvis: Cla…

E-Juice Makers Mixer Profiles:



Jennifer Jarvis:

Clayton “Steamroom” Moneymaker:

Concrete River:

Six Strings:


Cheeba Steeba


Too Tall


Best RDTAs 2017 – Vaping360

Best RDTAs 2017

What is an RDTA?

One of the things that can make vaping pretty confusing when you are starting out is all the different names for the devices. RDA’s, RTA’s and more recently RDTA’s have been building in popularity. Do Rebuildable Dripping Tank Atomizers, give you the “best of both worlds”?.

Think of an RDTA atomizer as a cross between a tank and an a dripper. Instead of only holding juice within the cotton and juice wells, it’s essentially a dripper sitting on top of a reservoir of e-liquid. The wicks hang down into the tank and feed the juice to the coil as you are vaping.

RDTA’s are based off the Genesis style of atomizers which were popular for their flavor. Traditionally stainless steel mesh was used for wicking, but since has been replaced primarily with organic cotton. RDTA’s are a throwback, but at the same time, they are also cutting edge.

Another advantage of using RDTA’s is that they are often times easy to fill, despite not holding a ton of liquid. Instead of unscrewing it apart like a tank, most rebuildable dripping tank atomizers pop open like a dripper (by pulling off the top cap) so that you can fill it up or use it as an RDA.

The problem with RTA’s

Many rebuildable tank atomizers, aka RTA’s are great, but you’ll never get the same experience on one versus that of a dripper because of the few extra millimeters that the vapor has to travel through the chimney. This can make a world of difference, believe it or not. Hence the RDTA…

Let’s rewind a few years back to when you could only get this type of performance from a tank. Since then, some impressive RTA’s have come out, but are still outshined by most RDA’s. For years, vapers have strived to attain that seemingly impossible “dripper in a tank” experience.

Rebuildable dripping tank atomizers were the industry’s answer to this desire. On an RDTA, the mouthpiece sits right on top of the coils, just like an RDA. Unlike a tank, the vapor doesn’t travel through a chimney, it’s the same proximity to your mouth as it would be on an average dripper.

The Genny lean?

Many RDTA users have found themselves doing this, and no it isn’t a new hip-hop dance craze. The Genny lean, is tilting your RDTA on an angle when puffing on it, to ensure that the cotton gets saturated, especially when your tank is running low. Back when Genesis atomizers were more popular, this was a common tactic used to combat those dry hits you would otherwise get.

5 Tips for building/wicking RDTA’s:

1. Comb and fluff your wicks before vaping
2. Don’t be cheap, use a good amount of cotton
3. Don’t use too much cotton or dry hit city
4. Experiment with where you like to cut your wicks
5. Don’t build your coils too high or too low

Even the best RDTA tanks require some trial and error to attain the perfect build and wicking. Experiment with different builds and techniques to find out which one is best for you.

Let’s take a look at some of the best RDTA atomizers available on the market today…

Best RDTA’s of 2017

Aromamizer Plus RDTA

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Great flavor

Spacious deck

Holds 20 mL of juice


Airflow intake screen


Won’t sit right on most mods

Uses a lot of o-rings

Threading could be better


Glass tank

10 mL juice capacity

510 threading connection

Two big airflow control slots on the sleeve

New air intake screen design to both improve flavor and reduce the effects of coil spitting

Enhanced juice flow design for more accurate juice supply and ease of assembly 10 mL juice capacity as standard incorporating a modular design for optional 5 mL and 20 mL kits

wide bore chimney and friction fit drip tip

Spacious postless build deck with capacity for coils of over 6mm internal diameter

The uncompromising Aromamizer flavor experience

The Aromamizer was one of the first rebuildable atomizers to take the title of an RDTA and is still one of the best RDTA’s to this day. Today we have the Aromamizer Plus RDTA which is a 30mm beast of a tank that can hold up to 20 mL of juice! It also has a postless deck which can hold coils with an inner diameter of up to 6mm.

One of the main things that has been enhanced from the original Aromamizer RDTA’s is the airflow. Other improvements include added juice flow control, which is becoming standard on most rebuildable tanks, and less condensation than any of the previous Aromamizer RDTA’s.

The Aromamizer Plus RDTA is massive, but can be converted to be either a 5 mL tank, 10 mL tank or a regular RDA, by using the extension kit. Last but not least, the new airflow intake screen helps to not only improve flavor, but also reduces spitback.


~ $28

Wotofo Serpent RDTA (Single-coil)

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Good flavor/vapor production

For single coil use

Fits larger coils

Drip tip adapter included


No dual coil option

Not easy to fill with a dropper bottle


Available Color: Black


Material: Glass

Stainless Steel

Tank Capacity: 2.5

Thread: 510

The original Wotofo Serpent make quite a splash by striking the perfect balance between flavor and cloud production. The Serpent RDTA brings that same great flavor in an RDTA-style device. Made of stainless steel, the Wotofo Serpent RDTA uses Goon-esque clamps on your coil build.

Just like the RTA version, the Serpent RDTA is specifically designed for single coil use only. You can fit macro coils with an inner diameter of up to 3.5mm inside. The vapor production is also quite impressive for a single coil atomizer. The Serpent RDTA is for flavor chasing single coilers.

The Wotofo Serpent is a 22mm device, which are becoming extinct these days. The dual fill ports are very easy to use. The side airflow design feeds air straight down to the coils which maximizes flavor. Last but not least, the Wotofo Serpent RDTA is extremely resistant to leaking.


~ $20

Augvape Merlin RDTA

Save 10%

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Good flavor

Self-sealing design

Comfortable mouthpiece

Supports larger coil builds (3.5mm)

Good machining quality

5 mL capacity


Condensation (from sealing rod)

Juice flow slots require a lot of cotton

Spare glass and extra screws not included

Not ideal with coils smaller than 3.5 mm


304 SS

Diameter:24 mm

Capacity:3.5 mL

Height:48.5 mm

Delrin Top Cap And Drip Tip

Peek Insulator

Borosilicate Glass Tube

Elegant Hollowed-out Logo

Easy to wick and refill

The Augvape Merlin RDTA is a 24mm RDTA that does exceptional in the flavor department. It has a large, two-post deck so it can fit coils with an inner diameter larger than 3.5mm. The Merlin RDTA gives you the option of pulling the top cap off, or unscrewing the whole top portion.

The most unique feature is the Augvape Merlin RDTA’s self-sealing design. It uses a sealing rod which is connected to the top piece, which seals off the device when it is closed. You will get little to no leakage, provided that you use a generous amount of cotton in its large juice wells, despite that it uses a bottom-airflow system.

The Augvape Merlin RDTA is for flavor chasers who want something classy, but built like a tank.



Geekvape Medusa RDTA

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Unique aesthetic

Great flavor

Locking mechanism

Large posts/Solid screws

Well machined


Short drip tip

Threading on mouthpiece isn’t great

Won’t fit all 510 drip tips


Type: Rebuildable Atomizer

Material: Acrylic

Stainless Steel

Tank Capacity: 3.0 mL

Thread: 510

Overall Diameter: 25 mm

The Medusa RDTA by Geekvape is more deceiving than the goddess herself. When you first look at her, she looks like a dripper, but is actually an RDTA. Instead of having a glass tank, the Medusa utilizes a large reservoir, underneath the deck, that can hold up to 3 mL of juice.

The Geekvape Medusa RDTA is 25 mm in diameter and features side airflow control. It’s low profile design gives it a unique aesthetic, and helps to condense the vapor which contributes to its great flavor. Other notable features include a velocity style deck with huge post holes and a locking mechanism that holds your top cap in place.

Think of the GeekVape Medusa RDTA as an RDA on steroids, that can hold a boat load of juice, making it their most innovative and best RDTA since the Avocado…


~ $20

Bombertech Pindad Driptank RDTA

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Smooth airflow

Great flavor/vapor production

Nice throat hit

Easy to fill

Includes squonking pin

Locking top cap

Single coil option

Gold plated contacts


Not ideal for MTL vaping

Plastic tank


Weight: 80 g

Dimensions: 7 x 7 x 3.5 cm

Color: black



The Bombertech Driptank aka the Pindad is a 22 mm RDTA with features that make it stand out from the many other RDTA’s out there. For example, it has a liquid injection fill port that is a breeze to use and comes squonk-ready, so there are two different ways to fill the 2 mL tank.

The gold-plated velocity style deck with large post holes makes for easy building. The top cap is secured by a unique locking mechanism. The Bombertech Driptank is a flavor machine for lovers of rebuildable dripping tank atomizers, whether they want to build single or dual coils.



iJoy RDTA Box Mini

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Great flavor

Super portable

100W of power

Temp control

Micro-USB charging

6 mL capacity

Can be used with any atomizer

Updated fill port


Not enough battery life for high-wattage vaping

Pre-built coils may need to be re-wicked

Drip tip may get hot when chain vaping


Model: RDTA Box MINI 100W

Material: Stainless Steel

Zinc Alloy

Mod Type: Temperature Control Mod


APV Mod Wattage Range: 51-100W

APV Mod Wattage: 100W

Temperature Control Range: 200 – 600 Deg.F

Battery Capacity: 2600mAh

Connection Threading of Battery: 510

Tank Capacity: 6.0 mL

Atomizer Resistance: 0.25 ohm

The iJoy Limitless RDTA was one of the first to bring RDTA’s to the mainstream. iJoy has taken that a couple steps further with the new RDTA Box Mini in terms of mass appeal. It comes with premade, disposable coil heads, and a separate velocity style deck to build your own coils on.

The iJoy RDTA Box Mini also gives you the option of using your own atomizer with the mod. It has a built in 2600mAh lipo battery and is capable of reaching up to 100W. The RDTA Box Mini is an all-in-one solution for vapers who want an ergonomic, portable device with great flavor.

Note: The atomizer on the RDTA Box Mini is essentially a miniature version of the original iJoy RDTA. Both of them are based on the iJoy Classic and some of the best RDTA vapes around.


~ $60

SMOK Skyhook RDTA Box

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9 mL capacity

Good flavor

Single coil option

Multiple airflow options

Accurate wattage output

Temperature control

Improved fill port (from original Skyhook RDTA)


Not compatible with other 510 atomizers

Threading could be better

Tank is made of plastic


All-In-One Design

Dimensions: 129 mm by 50 mm by 9 mm

9 mL Built-in Skyhook RDTA Tank

Dual High-Amp 18650 Batteries – Sold Separately

Wattage Output Range: 6-220W

Voltage Output Range: 0.35-8V

Min Atomizer Resistance: 0.06ohm

Temperature Range: 200-600F

Supports Ni200 Nickel / Titanium and Stainless Steel Heating Elements

Premium Stainless Steel Construction

Enlarged 0.96 Inch OLED Display Matrix – Highly Intuitive

Stealth Firing Bar Mechanism – Stunning Colors

Ergonomically Placed Adjustment Buttons

Micro USB Port

Available in Silver / Black / Blue / Red / Gold / White

9 mL Juice Capacity

Superior Stainless Steel Construction

Pyrex Glass Reinforcement

Enlarged 23.2 mm Build Deck

Floating Velocity-Style Design – Two-Post Dual Terminal

2.5 mm Diameter Terminal Posts

Single Coil or Dual Coil Build Configurations

Convenient Side-Fill Port

Multiple Airflow System

Bottom-Middle Slotted Airflow Tube Sleeve

Middle Slotted Airflow Tube Sleeve

Delrin Wide bore Drip Tip

SMOK released their take on the RDTA box in the form of the Skyhook. Aesthetically speaking, it looks like their popular Alien mod, with an atomizer slapped on top. It holds 9 mL of juice and is meant to be used as a powerful duo. The Skyhook mod also has temp control capabilities.

The SMOK Skyhook RDTA has a floating velocity style deck and it is 23 mm in diameter. It also allows for both dual and single coil builds (using a plug), in addition to having multiple airflow options. The Skyhook takes two 18650 batteries and is capable of firing up to 220W.

The “alien’s cloud machine” gives the full-sized iJoy RDTA Box a run for its money, making it one of the best RDTA vapes out there right now.


~ $45

Cthulhu Mods Gaia RDTA

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Great flavor

Bottom and side airflow

Well machined

No frills design

Velocity-style deck

Squonking pin included

Ultem drip tip


No single coil option

Harder to fill with dropper

2 mL capacity

Tank may get hot


24 mm Diameter

2 mL Juice Reservoir

Superior Stainless Steel Construction

Pyrex Glass Reinforcement

Spacious Flavor-Orientated Chamber


Dual Terminal – Side-Secured

PEEK Insulator

Four Wicking Port

Dual Adjustable Bottom Airslots

Dual Adjustable Side Airslots

Central Filling Port – Exposed via Removing Top Cap

Flavor Widebore Drip Tip

510 Squonk-Ready Pin – Optional

510 Connection

When Cthulu Mods developed the Gaia, their goal was to achieve the best RDTA atomizer that strikes a perfect balance between clouds and flavor. Using both side and bottom airflow, the Gaia RDTA can be adjusted to your vaping style. The kit includes an extra 510 squonking pin.

The Gaia has a velocity-style deck, in addition to a velocity-style side airflow system which you turn to achieve your preferred airflow setting. It’s 24 mm in diameter and holds 2 mL of e-liquid. Last but not least, the Gaia has four large wicking ports, and a fill port right in the center of the deck which is very easy to use.



CoilArt Mage Combo RDTA

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Multiple build deck options

Swappable deck posts

Converts to an RDA

Well machined

Multiple airflow options


No single coil option

Minor leaking

Performs better as a dripper


24 mm Diameter

4 mL Juice Capacity

High-Quality 304 Stainless Steel Construction

Food-Grade Pyrex Glass Reinforcement

24K Gold-Plated Apparatus

Interchangeable Building Posts

Two-Post w/ Clamp Mechanism Deck


Dual Terminals Deck – Velocity-Style

PEEK Insulator

Capable of Transforming into RDA

Removable Threaded Tank Section

Signature Side-Fill Method – Large 9 mm by 3 mm Port

Four Air slots Located on Each Side – Adjustable Knurled Top Cap

Sloped Delrin Drip Tip

Gold-Plated 510 Connection

The Mage RTA is already known as one of the best flavor RTA’s, now CoilArt has set out to create not one of the best RDTA atomizers, but one that can also be used as a dripper. The Coil Art Mage Combo RDTA comes with multiple deck options in addition to swappable deck posts.

This RDTA gives you multiple airflow options, including both bottom and side airflow. The deck has gold plated posts and the overall diameter of the atomizer is 24 mm. The deck has a unique spring loaded clamp system for your builds. Using a side port fill system, the Coil Art Mage Combo can hold up to 4 mL of juice.




Now that you have seen some of the best RDTA vapes and have a basic understanding of how they work, we want to know what you think. Do rebuildable dripping tank atomizers really give you the “best of both” worlds? Technically speaking, they do, what was your experience like?

Leave a comment about what you think about RDTA’s. Which one is your favorite right now?

The post Best RDTAs 2017 appeared first on Vaping360.

Best RDTAs 2017 – Vaping360



Medical Study Claims Vaping Far Less Likely To Turn Adolescents Onto Smoking – VAPE Magazine

Medical Study Claims Vaping Far Less Likely To Turn Adolescents Onto Smoking

(Justin Sullivan | Getty Images)
Public health researchers find no clear evidence to support the claim that vaping leads teens to smoking, calling battle cries belted out by some lawmakers who suggest otherwise a detriment to preserving public health.

Doctors Lynn Kozlowski and Kenneth Warner, wrote in the Drug and Alcohol Dependence journal that there is little evidence to substantiate the link between vaping and later smoking among adolescents—calling alarmist claims as being harmful towards young people and adults who may feel dissuaded from switching over to vaping.

“The national trends in vaping and cigarette smoking do not support the argument that vaping is leading to smoking,” Kozlowski said in a statement. “From the best evidence to date, e-cigarettes are much less dangerous than cigarettes. The public has become confused about this.”

Read more by clicking here for the Daily Caller article.

Chris Mellides is the Managing Editor of VAPE Magazine. A seasoned journalist, he has worked in all areas of the media industry since first getting his start in newspaper reporting. Contact him at

Medical Study Claims Vaping Far Less Likely To Turn Adolescents Onto Smoking – VAPE Magazine



Ckemist Original: Smoke Dog –

Ckemist Original: Smoke Dog –

1.50% Cinnamon Crunch (Flavorah) * 1.00% Marshmallow (FA) * 1.00% Red USA Mix (Hangsen) * 1.00% RY4 Double (TPA) * 1.00% Sweetener (Sucralose) (TPA) * 2.00% Vanilla Pudding (Flavorah) * 2.00% Vienna Cream (FA) * Get the Hangsen red mix from BCV



Safety – Flavorah FLV – The Flavoring for eJuice

Safety – Flavorah FLV – The Flavoring for eJuice

Flavor concentrate MSDS and safety instructions for handling of ejuice flavor. Please take note of this important information.